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Essential Interviewing and Counseling Skills

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Essential Interviewing and Counseling Skills

SKU# 9780826199157

An Integrated Approach to Practice

Author: Tracy Prout PhD, Melanie Wadkins PhD

Now available on:


This is the only comprehensive text to focus on the development of practical interviewing and counseling skills for master's-level mental health counseling students. It is structured around the goals established by the CACREP's 2009 document on standards for MHC programs, and uniquely encompasses both theory and practice from the perspectives of a diverse array of theoretical schools and practice strategies. The benefits of integrating complementary therapy approaches according to the needs of the client and the importance of multicultural considerations in interviewing and counseling are consistent themes throughout.

The book's hands-on guidance regarding interviewing and counseling skills, along with its embrace of different therapeutic modalities, will enable students to learn how to provide care to clients that is tailored to their specific needs. Each chapter includes a highlighted section that draws students' attention to topics related to diversity, and strategies for working with clients from a variety of populations. Issues related to race, ethnicity, immigration, and country of origin are highlighted along with age, gender, sexual orientation, religion, language, and physical and cognitive abilities. The use of case examples from multiple theoretical orientations offers a realistic view of what actually occurs in a consulting room. The book also addresses working with clients who have serious emotional or psychological difficulties and covers evidenced-based practice, assessment, and diagnosis, and when and how to terminate treatment. An instructor's guide and PowerPoint slides are also included.

Key Features:

  • Provides a balanced, integrated theoretical and practical approach to interviewing and counseling with a focus on skills development
  • Teaches the fundamental skills of empathy, active listening, treatment planning, and developing a strong therapeutic alliance
  • Includes "Spotlight on Culture" sections with case studies to emphasize how diversity informs sensitive and effective psychotherapy
  • Provides exercises to help students discover their own blind spots in regard to diversity
  • Offers a realistic window into the profession through numerous case examples

Product Details 

  • Publication Date March 27, 2014
  • Page Count 440
  • Product Form Paperback / softback
  • ISBN 13 9780826199157
  • EISBN 9780826199164

Table of Contents 

Foreword Dean McKay, PhD, ABPP xv
Preface xix
Acknowledgments xxi
1. Introduction to Counseling and Interviewing 1
What Is Counseling? 1
Evolution and Professionalization of Counseling 4
The Clinical Interview 8
Why Do We Interview? 9
How Do We Interview? 12
Becoming a Counseling Professional 15
Mistakes 15
Integrating Theory and Research Into Practice 18
Know Thyself 19
Chapter Review 20
Personal Refl ection Essay Questions 21
Keywords 21
Further Reading 22
2. Doing Our Best—Ethics and Professional Responsibility 23
Understanding Ethics 24
Guiding Principles 24
The Ethics Code and Professional Standards 26
The APA Ethics Code 27
The American Counseling Association (ACA) Ethics Code 27
Confidentiality and Its Limits 28
Safety of Patient and Others 31
Court Requests 33
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
(HIPAA) 33
Special Cases 35
Dual Relationships 36
Definition and Examples 36
Avoiding Exploitative Multiple Relationships 37
Making Ethical Decisions 39
The Philosophical Approach to Decision Making 40
Practice-Based Decision Making 40
Virtue Ethics 40
Considering Specifi c Ethical Dilemmas 41
Chapter Review 42
Personal Refl ection Essay Questions 43
Keywords 44
Further Reading 44
3. Understanding Your Clients: Case Conceptualization and Selection of
Counseling Interventions 47
Psychodynamic Theory 49
A Brief Overview of Historical Infl uences 49
Basic Tenets of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy 53
Case Formulation From a Psychodynamic Perspective 55
Selection of Counseling Interventions 57
Summary 58
Cognitive Behavioral Theory 59
Overview of CBT 59
Historical Infl uences 60
Cognitive Behavioral Case Formulation 64
Selection of Counseling Interventions 65
Integrating Other Perspectives 67
Humanistic and Existential Psychology 67
Family Systems 68
Biological Approaches 68
Integration of Perspectives 69
An Integrated Case Formulation Example 70
Alyssa 70
Psychodynamic Case Formulation 71
Cognitive Behavioral Formulation 71
Other Components 71
An Integrated Treatment Approach 72
Conclusion 72
Chapter Review 72
Personal Refl ection Essay Questions 73
Keywords 74
Further Reading 74
4. Introduction to Issues of Diversity 77
Interviewing and Counseling From a Multicultural Perspective 78
Types of Diversity 80
Race, Ethnicity, Country of Origin, and Language 81
Acculturation 84
Immigration 87
Sexual Orientation 87
Issues of Gender and Gender Identity 88
Religion and Spirituality in Context 90
Physical and Cognitive Abilities 91
Social Class and Socioeconomic Status—Crossing the Divide 93
Knowing Yourself 94
Working With Clients Who Share Your Cultural Background 95
Potential Challenges to Helping 95
The Client as Expert 96
Developing Cross-Cultural Competence 96
Experiences in Community 96
Continuing Education 97
Chapter Review 98
Personal Refl ection Essay Questions 99
Keywords 99
Further Reading 100
Appendix: Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale—Short
Form (MGUDS-S) 101
5. Beginnings: The Initial Interview 105
The Offi ce 106
Safety 109
Personal Appearance and Presentation 111
How to Prepare Mentally 112
Opening Communication 113
How to Begin 114
Greetings and Initial Contact 115
Confi dentiality 119
Warmth 120
Genuineness 120
Empathy 121
Types of Interviews 122
Documentation 124
Chapter Review 126
Personal Refl ection Essay Questions 127
Keywords 128
Further Reading 128
Appendix 129
6. Interviewing and Counseling Skills: Modes of Listening 131
A Different Type of Listening 132
A Different Type of Relationship 133
Active Listening 133
Paying Attention 136
Refl ective Listening 139
Mirroring Affect 140
Following the Client’s Words 141
Avoiding Digression 141
Listening for Themes 142
Listening for Cues 143
Getting the Whole Picture 143
Four Listening Responses 144
Clarifi cation 145
Paraphrase 145
Refl ection 146
Summarization 147
Nonverbal Communication 147
Body Language 147
Eye Contact 148
What to Avoid 149
The Use of Interpreters 150
Chapter Review 151
Personal Refl ection Essay Questions 152
Keywords 152
Further Reading 153
7. Counseling Skills: Empathy and the Therapeutic Alliance 155
Uniqueness of the Therapeutic Relationship 156
Defi ning the Therapeutic Relationship 159
Developing Empathy 166
When Empathy Is Not Optimal 167
The Therapeutic Alliance 168
Chapter Review 175
Personal Refl ection Essay Questions 176
Keywords 177
Further Reading 177
8. Counseling Skills: Assessment, Diagnosis, and
Treatment Planning 179
Assessment 180
Behavioral Assessment 180
Collateral Data 183
Testing 185
Diagnosis 187
Overview of DSM-5 Diagnosis 188
Advantages and Disadvantages to Classifi cation 191
Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual 192
Goal Setting 192
Treatment Plans 195
Continuous Goal Assessment 196
Communicating With Clients About Treatment Recommendations 196
Careful Communication 196
Who’s Driving the Bus? 198
Wellness and Prevention Approaches 198
An Evidence-Based Model of Wellness 199
Helping Groups Avoid Psychological, Educational, and
Health Problems 200
Chapter Review 201
Personal Refl ection Essay Questions 203
Keywords 203
Further Reading 204
9. The Nature of the Counseling Relationship 205
Transference 207
History of Transference 211
Adler’s Perspective on Transference 213
Transference Within Other Therapeutic Frameworks 213
Countertransference 215
Countertransference in Action 216
Working With Transference and Countertransference 218
The Real Relationship 223
Power Dynamics 224
Evaluating the Process 224
The Ethics of Self-Disclosure 225
Chapter Review 228
Personal Refl ection Essay Questions 229
Keywords 229
Further Reading 230
10. Promoting Change: Counseling Skills That Address Thoughts
and Behaviors 231
Addressing Ambivalence 232
Transtheoretical Stages of Change Model 233
Cognitive Techniques 236
Increasing Self-Effi cacy 237
Increasing Cognitive Dissonance 243
Behavioral Techniques 246
Operant Principles 246
Psychodynamic Techniques 248
Psychic Confl ict 248
Integrating It All 251
Chapter Review 251
Personal Refl ection Essay Questions 253
Keywords 253
Further Reading 253
11. Promoting Change: Counseling Skills That Address Emotions
and Relationships 255
Identifying and Understanding Emotions 257
Metacognition and Meta-Emotion 257
Nonverbal Expression of Emotions 263
Working With Emotions 265
Working With Your Own Emotions 269
Understanding Systems—Clients in Context 273
Relational Dynamics 275
Change Within a System 278
Ambivalence and Confl ict 278
Chapter Review 280
Personal Refl ection Essay Questions 281
Keywords 281
Further Reading 281
12. Endings 283
Termination Issues 284
When to End Treatment 285
How Treatment Ends 287
Ideal Termination 288
Client-Initiated Premature Termination 291
Therapist-Initiated Premature Termination 295
Issues of Post-Termination Contact 300
Chapter Review 301
Personal Refl ection Essay Questions 302
Keywords 303
Further Reading 303
13. Varieties of Counseling Situations 305
Group Counseling 306
Types of Therapy Groups 307
Yalom’s Therapeutic Factors 311
Working in Schools 313
Working With Children 314
Communication With School Staff and Parents 315
Marriage and Family Counseling 317
Family Systems Theory 317
Structural Family Therapy 318
Career Counseling 319
Aptitude, Interest, and Skills Assessment and Career Matching 319
Career Development 321
Career Change 323
Forensic Settings 323
Forensic Assessment 323
Forensic Interventions 324
Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention 324
Assessing Risk for Suicide 325
Therapeutic Interventions 327
Referral to Treatment 328
Chapter Review 328
Personal Refl ection Essay Questions 329
Keywords 330
Further Reading 330
14. Using Counseling Skills That Work 333
Understanding Empirical Research 334
Maintaining Current Knowledge 335
How to Evaluate Research 337
Developing a Style 345
Finding the Theories That Fit 345
Integrative or Eclectic? 346
Chapter Review 347
Personal Refl ection Essay Questions 348
Keywords 349
Further Reading 349
15. Growing as a Counseling Professional 351
Professional Development 352
Conferences 352
Workshops and Seminars 354
Certifi cation 354
Networking 355
Self-Care 356
Caring for the Body 356
Caring for the Mind 357
Building Healthy Relationships 358
Setting Personal Boundaries 358
Avoiding Burnout 360
Seeking Support From Colleagues 362
Supervision 362
Therapy for the Therapist 366
Chapter Review 366
Personal Refl ection Essay Questions 367
Keywords 368
Further Reading 368
References 371
Glossary 457
Index 465

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